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International Journal of Marine Science 2013, Vol.3, No.26, 201-211
Figure 3 Congener contribution to PCDD/Fs toxicity in Marine catfish, False herring, Chere-chere grunt, and Barracuda, collect from
Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, during July-August 2012
2.1 Surveys of persistent organochlorine contaminants
(PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in fish species
While a great number of datasets documenting
absolute concentrations of persistent organic pollutants
in a variety of marine biota are available, the
bioaccumulative nature, toxicity, biomagnification,
and the fate of these compounds in the marine
ecosystem is still poorly understood.
The presence of anthropogenic pollutants, such as
PCB and PCDD/F congeners, throughout all
compartments of the marine environment has been of
international concern for a number of decades
(Rappolder et al., 2007; Karl et al., 2010), and the data
are compatible with ones detected in the species
studied in this article. Bayarri et al (2001) studying
edible fish species from Adriatic sea found levels of
PCDD/Fs and PCBs between 0.23 and 1.07 pg
I-TEQ/g of wet weight (ww) in these species.
Kiviranta et al (2004) in study on dietary intake in
Finland found PCDD/Fs; sum: 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g
ww PCBs; sum: 1.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww. In study to
determine the levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in 14
edible marine species randomly purchased in various
cities of Catalonia, Bocio et al (2007) found values of
PCDD/F and PCB of 10.28 pg/g ww and 88.10 ng/g
ww, respectively. Concentrations and congener-specific
profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs
were determined by Piskorska-Pliszczynska et al
(2012) in five species of edible fish from the Baltic
Sea: salmon (
Salmo salar
), Baltic herring (
harengus membras
), sprat (
Sprattus sprattus balticus
sea trout (
Salmo trutta m.trutta
), and cod (
morhua callarias
). Marker PCBs were the dominant
compounds (0.07-60.84 ng/g w.w.), followed by
dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and
PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67 pg WHO-TEQ w.w). Data
from Koenig et al (2012) the levels and profiles of
organochlorine contaminants, including PCBs,
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachloro-
cyclohexanes (HCHs) and penta- (PeCB) and HCB, as
well as PBDEs were determined in muscle samples of
the deep-sea fish
Alepocephalus rostratus
Lepidion lepidion
from the NW
Mediterranean Sea. Mean PCB and DDT levels
ranged from the highest concentrations in the fish
[Σ(7)PCBs 6.93±0.71ng/gw.w. and ΣDDTs
8.43±1.10ng/gw.w.]. Ben Ameur et al (2012) analyzed
thirty one persistent organic pollutants including
organochlorine contaminants and its metabolites
(DDTs), HCHs and HCB, PCBs, PBDEs, and
methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(MeO-PBDEs) in
solea solea
muscle, from Bizerte
Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean
Sea (northern Mediterranean). Mean levels of
organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng/g
lipid weight in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the
Mediterranean Sea, respectively.
Specifically from the study site, Lavandier et al (2013)
analyzing PCBs in three fish species from Sepetiba
Bay, founded levels varying from 3.97 ± 1.32 to 11.04 ±