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International Journal of Marine Science 2013, Vol.3, No.26, 201-211
3.74 ng/g ww (mean ± SD) in scabbardfish muscle
and from 4.54 ± 2.41 to 22.71 ± 8.69 ng/g ww in
scabbardfish liver. For croaker, PCBs levels ranged
from 2.29 ± 1.07 to 25.88 ± 5.69 ng/g ww in muscle
and from 3.41 ± 2.14 to 34.22 ± 11.19 ng/g ww in
liver. For mullet, PCBs ranged from 2.37 ± 1.85 to
27.60 ± 12.06 ng/g ww in muscle and from 3.70 ±
1.92 to 24.53 ± 4.82 ng/g ww in liver.
According to Quinete et al (2011) elevated concentrations
of PCBs are coming been detected in some fish
species stranded along the Brazilian coast, and also in
some locations offshore Brazil, suggesting the
presence of a highly polluted source in the Southern
Hemisphere, which may be related to the industrial
growth in recent years, as well as possible impacts
observed in others developed nations. Therefore, our
results corroborate the existence of a source of PCB
contamination in Brazil.
2.2 The structure of local environmental concern
There is no chance of removing dioxin and related
pollutants from the bay, but the level of fish
contamination is dependent on the aquatic environment,
and human exposure can only be reduced through
systematically effective fish control. The main
objective of the survey was to obtain information
about existing levels of pollutants, having as a
consequence the possibility of providing preventive
actions and assessing risk, although the results showed
the dietary consumption of fish from Sepetiba region,
did not represent a risk for human health.
As a final consideration, is important take in account
about consumption of fish be done according to the
data concerning levels of environmental pollutants in
the most consumed fish in specific region or country,
which is being studied.
2.3 Pops and its impact on public health
Reported adverse effects of POPs on public health
mention cases of increases in cancers, reduced
reproductive function, disrupted development of
immune and nervous systems, and also elicit toxic
responses which could result in the disruption of the
endocrine system (Kogevinas, 2000; An and Hu, 2006;
Pesatori et al., 2009; Birnbaum, 2013).
The success of modern societies is, in part, based on
extensive achievements of chemistry with a systematic
development of products in medicine, agriculture, and
in almost all manufacturing industry sectors and
materials for daily use. Although these chemicals
unequivocally contributes to the quality of life for
billions of human beings, however, the negative
impacts to environment and health are an important
issue for ostensible monitoring. Social and
environmental benefits should not be ignored in spite
of the economic forces.
The recognition that prevention is the best method to
mitigate the risk of diseases to public health related to
the environment, evidence of changes in health status,
and also driven by technological development
allowing individualization and quantification of
toxicological endpoints are undoubtedly important
factors in the generation of this importance.
3 Materials and Methods
3.1 Study site
Sepetiba Bay is a sedimentary embayment, which
originated by an extensive process of sand deposition
that formed a barrier beach at its southern bound. Is
situated in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (22º55'
and 23º05'S/43º40' and 44º40'W), with a 520 km
housing a wide range of habitats including mangroves,
sandbanks, and small estuarine areas. Mean depth of
8.6 m, a maximum depth of 30 m, and waters are rich
in organic nutrients from continental drainage; bottom
is predominantly muddy. Several rivers (Piraquê,
Cação, Guarda, São Francisco, Itá, Guandú) and small
tributaries drain into the Bay, with seawater dilution
being more noticeable in the inner Bay. Discharges
usually peak in late spring and summer and drop in
winter, reflecting the pattern of rainfall. Bottom
salinity is quite stable, ranging between 27% and 34%
most of the year. The climate is tropical with temperature
ranging between 20
and 30
. The annual rainfall is
between 1,000 mm and 2,100 mm (Figure 4).
Figure 4 Study area: Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil