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International Journal of Marine Science 2013, Vol.3, No.26, 201-211
accumulation of both parent compounds and its
metabolites in lipid rich tissues such as adipose tissues
and human breast milk (Kitamura et al., 2000;
Solomon and Weiss, 2002; Ennaceur et al., 2008).
Those isomers with chlorines substituted in the 2,3,7,8
positions are thought to can cause risk to human
health because their toxicity, carcinogenic potency
and potential effects on animal reproductive and
immunological systems (Kogevinas, 2000; Pesatori
et al., 2009). It has been reported recently that
PCDD/F possesses the toxicity of endocrine disrupting
(An and Hu, 2006).
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dibenzo-
(PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are types of
persistent and bioaccumulating organic pollutants with
enhanced chronic toxicity and carcinogenic properties
and can be considered as environmental indicators of
anthropogenic activities since their incidence in the
environment can always be linked to anthropogenic
activities (Iwata et al., 1993; Pereira, 2004; Almeida et
al., 2007; Sarkar et al., 2008). These chemicals are
classified as POPs and contain different groups of
molecules that are very resistant to biodegradation and
thus inclined to biomagnification, exerting their toxic
effects at different trophic levels (EC, 2001; Storelli
et al., 2011).
There are 209 possible PCB congeners of which 12
have been shown to have dioxin-like toxicity. Those
congeners not have any or have only one chlorine atom
(mono-ortho-PCBs) in the ortho-position to the
carbon-carbon bond between the two benzene rings
(Liu et al., 2012). Ballschmiter and Zell (1980)
suggested a simple numbering system of the PCB
congeners, giving each congener a number from one to
209. PCBs have two benzene rings attached to each
other, with 1-10 chlorine atoms as substituents (Figure
1). There are 75 possible PCDD congeners and 135
possible PCDF congeners giving a total of 210
congeners. Of these, 17 have been shown to be toxic, 7
PCDDs and 10 PCDFs (Breivik et al., 2002). From the
human/biota point of view, 17 PCDD/Fs chlorine
substitution in the (2,3,7,8-) locations are considered to
be toxicologically significant (Bayarri et al., 2001; Van
Den Berg, 2006; Karl et al., 2010; Piskorska-Pliszczynska
et al., 2012). PCDDs have a planar aromatic tricyclic
structure with 1-8 chlorine atoms as substituents
(Figure 1).
Figure 1 The general structure of dioxins (left) and furans (right)
Contaminants enter the sea from the air or by several
waterways being deposited in the sediments, where
they accumulate over time. In the aquatic food chain,
crudely water-soluble dioxins are adsorbed on
mineral and organic particles suspended in water,
where they are exposed to bioconcentration in
trophic chains (Moriarty, 1999; Macdonald et al., 2002;
Skarphedinsdottir et al., 2010).
The direct aim of monitoring studies is to acquire
information about the levels of contaminants and
congener profiles actively identifying potential for
reducing human exposure (Ben Ameur et al., 2012).
And so, the goal of this study was to determine the
concentration levels of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in muscle
and tissue samples of
Genidens genidens
Harengula clupeola
(Cuvier, 1829),
(Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) and
(Linnaeus, 1758) collected in July-August
2012, from Sepetiba Bay, situated in the southern
Atlantic Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
1 Results
1.1 Morphometric data
The average of morphometric data of fishes captured
from Sepetiba Bay, during July-August 2012, are
presented in Table 1.
Table 1 Morphometric information of fish species collected from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, during July-August 2012
n Average total length (cm)
Average total weight (g)
Genidens genidens
15 23.31 ± 5.89
81.09 ± 21.75
Harengula clupeola
22 70.59 ± 16.37
24.34 ± 5.64
Haemulum steidachneri
9 19.53 ± 3.65
221.93 ± 21.59
Sphyraena sphyraena
13 71.60 ± 11.43
1704.11 ± 272.02