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International Journal of Marine Science 2013, Vol.3, No.26, 201-211
Research Article Open Access
Levels of Organochlorines Contaminants on Fish Species from Coastal Area in
the Southeastern Brazil
Aldo P. Ferreira
Center for the Study of Workers Health and Human Ecology, Sérgio Arouca National School of Public Health (Cesteh/Ensp/Fiocruz). Rua Leopoldo Bulhões,
1480-21.041-210, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Corresponding author email:
International Journal of Marine Science, 2013, Vol.3, No.26 doi: 10.5376/ijms.2013.03.0026
Received: 14 Apr., 2013
Accepted: 15 May, 2013
Published: 20 May, 2013
2013 Ferreira, This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:
Ferreira, 2013, Levels of Organochlorines Contaminants on Fish Species from Coastal Area in the Southeastern Brazil, International Journal of Marine Science,
Vol.3, No.26 201
211 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2013.03.0026)
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly lipophilic persistent
organochlorines contaminants
competent to resist degradation and with the ability to bioaccumulate through the food chain.
Concentrations were determined in four species of edible fish from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: marine catfish (
), false herring (
Harengula clupeola
), chere-chere grunt (
Haemulum steidachneri
), and barracuda (
Sphyraena sphyraena
which were collected in July-August 2012. PCBs and PCDD/Fs and were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometer
(HRGC/HRMS) according to the US EPA 1613B, 8290A, and US EPA 1668B methods. The focal objective of the assessment was to
obtain information about existing levels of pollutants, having as a consequence the possibility of providing preventive actions for
public health, as well as encourage the development of mitigation measures. The concentration of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from
0.10105~0.2141 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCBs ranged from 0.08834~0.62304 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. Judging from the European
Union regulation limit levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCDD/PCDFs/PCBs were lower than the criteria in all samples, however it is
important to systematize environmental monitoring.
PCBs; PCDD/Fs; Fish; Sepetiba Bay; Brazil
Fishes of the
family (marine catfish),
family (false hering, chere-chere grunt),
family (barracuda), are widely
distributed in tropical and sub-tropical waters (Gomes
and Araujo, 2004), and in Sepetiba Bay are abundant.
These species spawn in open coastal areas in the inner
continental shelf, and the juveniles recruit in protected
shallow areas, which offer food and shelter against
predators. As adults, they move, on a diet and
seasonal basis, between open coastal areas and bays,
when they become vulnerable to commercial fisheries
(Hallwass et al., 2013).
Fish store chemical substances either directly from the
surrounding environment or from their diet (Kiviranta
et al., 2004; Ben Ameur et al., 2012; Lavandier et al.,
2013). Humans are consumers of fish, and exposure
valuations now routinely consider fish ingestion as a
potential route of human exposure to chemicals in the
environment (Binelli and Provini, 2004; Bocio et al.,
2007). To assess the risk of dioxins exposure in the
general population and to determine the time trends,
regular testing of levels of these compounds in
environmental food chain is very important for
evaluating dioxins concentrations that pose a
potential health hazard (Alcock et al., 1998; Ennaceur
et al., 2008).
One possible exposure pathway by which humans and
other upper trophic level species can be exposed to
persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is through
consumption of dietary fish (Binelli and Provini, 2004;
Mazet et al., 2005; Charnley and Kimbrough, 2006;
Quinete et al., 2011), due to its accumulation in the
tissues of humans and animals (Ferreira, 2008;
El-Shahawi et al., 2010). POPs consist of intentionally
produced compounds such as pesticides or industrial
chemicals, and unintended by-products of industrial
processes (Hoivik and Safe, 1998; Kumar et al., 2001).
Human chronic exposure to those highly lipophilic
and persistent compounds via food chain has led to the