BM-2018v9n2 - page 5

Bioscience Method 2018, Vol.9, No.2, 12-21
Nigeria, there have been limited studies on the utilization of fish as fish based snack (suya). Plants have been
reported to have beneficial effects on human health especially in managing and preventing non communicable
diseases such as diabetes, obesity, coronary heart diseases etc. Plant crude extracts have the advantage to have
been consumed by humans for thousands of years with little or no adverse effect, and besides antimicrobial
importance, several plants are being used in different areas of human health such as traditional medicine,
functional foods, dietary supplements and recombinant protein manufacturing (Carmen et al., 2014) Their role as
antimicrobials derives from their capacity to control natural spoilage processes (food preservation) and to
prevent/control growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic micro-organisms (Tajkarimi et al., 2012).
Apart from the use of herbs for antimicrobial purposes, herbs and spices are also of medicinal importance to
human health. Bitter leaf (
Vernonia amygdalina
) and scent leaf (
Ocimum gratissimum
) as herbs have been
reported by many researchers to be highly medicinal.
Vernonia amygdalina
has been found useful in the ethno
therapy of asthma, schistosomiasis, malaria, measles, diarrhoea, tuberculosis, abdominal pain and fever. Arhoghro
et al. (2009), reported that
O. gratissimum
crude extracts significantly reduced and even reversed carbon
tetrachloride (CCl
)-induced liver damage in Wister rats after establishment. Hence
O. gratissimum
might be an
effective hepatoprotector in the diet of patients with hepatopathies (Arhoghro et al., 2009). Spices (Ginger, Garlic,
African negro pepper, Peanuts) have been reported as a remedy for various ailments such as arthritis, muscle
soreness, chest pain, low back pain, stomach pain, and menstrual pain, dyspepsia, acute or chronic gastritis,
diarrhea, cardiovascular disease, arterial sclerosis and other disease related to oxidative stress (Manach et al.,
2005). It can be used for treating upper respiratory tract infections, cough, and bronchitis. As an anti-inflammatory
agent, it is recommended for joint problems (Shukla and Singh, 2007).
To gain consumer’s acceptance of a fish based product rather than the carbohydrate snacks, the consumer would
have to be convinced of the quality and possible nutritional advantages with respect to the standard product it is
replacing. This study examines the effect of plants (
Ocimum gratissimum
Vernonia amygdalina
) crude extract
on the nutritional quality of
Sarotherodon galilaeus
1 Materials and Methods
1.1 Source of raw materials
The fish sample used for this study
(Sarotherodon galilaeus)
were procured from fish mongers at the landing site
of the fishermen at Egbe reservoir, Ode-Ekiti, Ekiti State, South west Nigeria. Nine hundred and forty grams of
Vernonia amygdalina
and 827 gms of
Ocimum gratissimum
leaves and ingredients for the composite spice (suya
spice) and other materials used were procured from Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria.
1.2 Production of spices
Table 1 shows the proportions and grams of different ingredients used in the spice. The following ingredients are;
Human edible Groundnut cake locally called “kulikuli”, Ginger, Garlic, Cayenne pepper flakes, Black Pepper,
Cooking salt and African Negro pepper. These ingredients were ground into powdery form to increase surface area
and improve attachment. The spice was similar to “Yaji” that is “suya” spice.
Table 1 Spice composition
Grams of ingredient
Proportion in spice (%)
Edible Groundnut Cake
Cayenne Pepper Flake
Black Pepper
Common Salt
African Negro Pepper
1,2,3,4 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14
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