BM-2018v9n2 - page 11

Bioscience Method 2018, Vol.9, No.2, 12-21
plays a role in regulating muscle contraction, transmitting nervous impulse, acts as an agent of blood coagulation,
and also helps in the formation of strong bones (NRC, 1989). Calcium content of the snack ranged from
80.82±0.029 mg/100 g to 360.9±0.121 mg/100 g. A stake averagely weighing (33.7±2.18 g) of the snack is
capable of supplying minimum of 8.14% of recommended daily intake of calcium (1,000) mg (NRC, 1989).
Consumption of the snack will aid the formation and development of strong bones hence could be recommended
for both adults and children (NRC, 1989).
Copper is an essential element in the body and is important in the production of red and white blood cells, triggers
the release of iron to form heamoglobin. It is also involved in infant growth, brain development, boost the immune.
The copper content (0.38±1.18 mg/100 g) obtained in this study is higher than the value (30 µg/g) obtained by
Fawole et al. (2013), this could be due to the groundnut cake in the spice and the fact that nuts are good source of
copper thus; consumption of this snack will enhance good health (NRC, 1989). Copper content in one stake of
snack is capable of supplying 6.4% to 2 mg of the recommended daily intake of this trace element.
Manganese content of the snacks ranged from 0.46±0.025 mg/100 g to 1.17±0.026 mg/100 g, the recommended
daily intake of this trace element is 5 mg and
S. galilaeus
snack in this study is capable of supplying 6% of
recommended daily intake. Manganese is important in making and activating some enzymes in the body but
taking high dose of manganese for too long can lead to muscle pain, nerve damage and neurological symptoms.
Potassium value ranged from 479.6±0.124 mg/100 g to 884.6±0.061 mg/100 g, these values implies that
consumption of one stake of
S. galilaeus
snack will supply 9.72% to the recommended daily intake of 2,000 mg
(NRC, 1989). Potassium plays important functions such as controlling the balance of fluids in the body and also
corrects the functioning of the heart muscles. Excessive intake of potassium could cause stomach pain, nausea and
diarrhea, results of potassium content in this snack is not likely to cause any of these ailments.
The values obtained for Selenium ranged from 0.65±0.008 mg/100 g to 2.44±0.072 mg/100 g. Fish is a very rich
source of Selenium,
S. galilaeus
snack in this study is capable of supplying the required amount of 0.7 mg (NRC,
1989) needed by the body in a day. Selenium is known to play an important role in immune system function and
in reproduction; it also helps to prevent damage to cells and tissues. A stake of the snack is capable of supplying
72% of the recommended daily intake of 0.7 mg.
Sodium is important in neuron functions and osmoregulation between cells and the extracellular fluid. Salt is the
main source of sodium, value obtained ranged from 420±0.008 mg/100 g to 702±0.004 mg/100 g, the
recommended daily intake is 2,400 mg. High sodium content of food is of great concern for health because too
much of sodium could lead to high blood pressure. This result indicated that the sodium content of the fish snack
could not lead to high blood pressure, thus, hypertensive patient could take the snack without fear of aggravating
the condition. A stake of this snack is capable of supplying 8.3% of the recommended daily intake of 0.7 mg.
Magnesium is a mineral that among other functions helps turn the food we eat into energy, and also helps to make
sure that parathyroid gland which produce parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone or parathyrin that are
important for bone health, work normally. Values obtained in this study ranged from 75±0.006 to 130±0.002 and
is capable of supplying 12.22% of recommended daily intake (300 mg).
Zinc is known to be involved in most metabolic pathways in humans which include among others; healing of
wounds, making new cells and enzymes, zinc deficiency can lead to loss of appetite, growth retardation, skin
changes and immunological abnormalities (Malakootian et al., 2011). The value of zinc in this study ranged from
0.64±0.002 mg/100 g to 3.07±0.009 mg/100 g and is capable of supplying 7.8% to 9.5 mg recommended daily
intake. Excess zinc have been implicated in copper absorption, zinc content of the snacks could not interfere with
body copper absorption.
Most of the elements were found to be higher in snacks treated with
Vernonia amygdalina
crude extract; these
values could have been influenced by its (
Vernonia amygdalina
) high elemental concentrates as reported by
1...,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 12,13,14
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