8 - IJMEC-Vol.02-No.03页


Intl. J. of Mol. Ecol. and Conserv. 2012, Vol. 2, No.3, 15-20
metapopulation theory, and these are topics that we
unfortunately do not have sufficient knowledge
particularly in a restoration context (Palmer et al., 1997).
4 Discussions
It is crucial that restorationists be able to understand
how ecosystems became degraded, an idea of how to
reverse the degradation, and how to efficiently initiate
recovery processes (Hobbs and Norton, 1996). It
should also be known that flexibility in setting
restoration objectives is not deviations from basing
restoration on ecological science, but rather, it is a
clear recognition that incomplete knowledge of past
ecosystem states, changes in the global environments,
costs, and the scale of degradation calls for a
pragmatic approach (Suding and Hobbs, 2009).
Ecological knowledge should therefore be taken as
guidelines in restorations but being cautious because of
complexity of nature and our lack of full understanding
dynamics of it, habitats and ecosystems may not always
respond according to the theories of science.
5 Implications for practice
If endpoints are not known, then it is better to
consider ecosystem function rather than species
Turn from hard engineering solutions to
ecologically based restorations
Use community theory as guidelines in seeding
processes in restoration or creating opportunities for
Adopt pluralism and be flexible in approaches to
restore communities
Continual monitoring and evaluation of projects
is critical
Formulate well-accepted criteria for each ecosystem
type to assess and report restoration outcomes
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