9 - MSB-1423-2014v5n7页

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Molecular Soil Biology 2014, Vol. 5, No. 7, 1-9
http://msb.biopublisher.ca
6
Soil amendment solely with inorganic fertilizer (T
1
)
and organic fertilizers (T
2
) significantly (P < 0.05)
improved yield of Arachis hypogaea over the control
considering number of pods/plant, pod yield, number
of seeds/plant and seed yield (Table 3). Yield under
only soil conditioner (T
3
) was higher though, it did not
differ (P > 0.05) from those grown in soil irrigated
with ordinary water (T
0
). Addition of soil conditioner
to inorganic fertilizer (T
4
) and organic fertilizer (T
5
)
further enhanced yield, which differed significantly (P
< 0.05) from those amended solely with inorganic (T
1
)
and organic (T
2
) fertilizers. For example, T
1
and T
2
increased number of seeds/plant by 46.57 and 57.77%
respectively over the control, but it increased to 84.55
and 86.86% in T
4
and T
5
respectively. Likewise, seed
yield/plant increased in T
1
and T
2
by 47.60% and
54.34% respectively, however increased to 82.49 and
83.68% at T
4
and T
5
respectively. The use of soil
conditioner alone only increased number of seeds and
seed yield by 16.03% and 13.14% respectively, with
values that did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from
control treatment. The values of 100-seed mass were
significantly (P < 0.05) higher in plants subjected to
soil amendments than did those irrigated with ordinary
water. No differences (P > 0.05) were however found
among the various soil amendments. Shelling
percentage increased under soil amendment treatments
over the control but one-way ANOVA revealed that
only T
4
and T
5
differed significantly (P < 0.05) when
compared to the control (Table 3).
4 Discussion
Growth and yield improvement in plants grown in soil
amended with organic and inorganic fertilizers might
be due to nutrient availability, particularly nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium ions according to Maman
and Mason (2013) who stated that addition of organic
and inorganic fertilizers into soil improves crop yield
by making more nutrient available to plants. Suge et al.
(2011) showed that organic and inorganic fertilizers
improved the vigorous vegetative growth, which in
turn led to increased total yields as well as improved
fruit quality of eggplant (
Solanum melongena
).
Likewise, Maman and Mason (2013) reported
improved growth and yield in millet under organic and
inorganic fertilizers. Organic inputs also increased
growth and yield of carrot (Mehedi et al., 2012).
Increase in growth and yield under inorganic fertilizer
in this study conforms to earlier research of Makinde
et al. (2011). They reported that NPK fertilizer
increased the number of nodes, branches, stem girth,
plant height, stem girth, number of leaves and leaf
area in
Corchorus olitorus
. Similarly, NPK fertilizer
produced better growth and yield in
Dioscorea
rotundata
(Law-Ogbomo and Remison, 2007), maize
(Law-Ogbomo and Law-Ogbomo, 2009) and eggplant,
Solanum melongena
(Nafiu et al., 2011).
Leaf total chlorophyll was not negatively affected
probably due to adequate nutrient supply to the plant
by the fertilizers. The slight increase in leaf total
chlorophyll might be as a result of additional supply
of nutrients like magnesium and iron, which are
important in chlorophyll formation. The improved
biomass was due to enhanced vegetative growth as
influenced by fertilizers. Leaf is the site of
photosynthetic activities, therefore increases in
number brought about increase in leaf surface area
available for photosynthesis. The increase in
photosynthetic activities resulted in the high biomass
observed in the plant. Increased root/shoot ratio is an
indication that soil amendments improved root
production.
Plants grown in amended soils had better yield in
A.
hypogaea
, in agreement with Mutengi et al. (2011)
results. They observed increase in yield of maize of
4.8 t/ha and 4.2 t/ha from the sole application of
calliadra (green manure). Lekasi et al. (2008) stated
that the use of manure can improve crop yield
considerably. Gudugi (2013) reported that organic
fertilizer at 20 t/ha had higher fruit weight than control
in
Abelmuschus esculentus
. Adediran and Banjoko
(2003) also observed that inorganic fertilizers
increased maize yield. Allam et al. (2009) stated that
the proper use of fertilizer can markedly increase the
yield and improve the quality of rice.
Soil conditioners, whether natural (organic) or
synthetic, can improve the soil structure through
stabilizing the aggregates, and can also have a positive
effect on moisture retention, fertility, infiltration and
workability of soil (Ben-Hur and Keren, 2006; Lobo