JMR-2017v7n17 - page 6

Journal of Mosquito Research 2017, Vol.7, No.17, 134-141
Research Article Open Access
Influence of Agro-chemical Inputs on Suitability of Physicochemical Conditions
of Rice-Fields for Mosquito Breeding in Minna, Nigeria
Salihu I.M.
, Olayemi I.K.
, Ukubuiwe A.C.
, Garba Y.
, Gusau A.Y.
, Nma-Etsu M.
, Usman M.D.
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
3 Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria
Corresponding author email
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017, Vol.7, No.17 doi
Received: 15 Aug., 2017
Accepted: 08 Sep., 2017
Published: 15 Sep., 2017
Copyright © 2017
Salihu et al., This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:
Salihu I.M., Olayemi I.K., Ukubuiwe A.C., Garba Y., Gusau A.Y., Nma-Etsu M., and Usman M.D., 2017, Influence of Agro-chemical inputs on suitability
of physicochemical conditions of Rice-Fields for mosquito breeding in Minna, Nigeria, Journal of Mosquito Research, 7(17): 134-141 (doi:
The influence of chemicals used in rice farming in Minna, on physicochemical properties of rice-field mosquito larval
habitats was investigated during the rainy season of 2013. Standard water quality analyses techniques were followed in determining
the concentrations of the different physicochemical parameters. The results showed that Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) did not vary significantly among the types of rice fields (range = 30.00±0.00 to 30.50±0.11
6.00±0.00 to 7.00±1.41 mg/l, and 4.00±0.00 to 4.50±2.12 mg/l, respectively). Turbidity and Nitrates were significantly (p<0.05)
highest in rice fields without chemical inputs (site A), with values ranging from 0.27±0.21 to 0.24±0.18 NTU and 9.92±1.94 to
7.72±2.23 mg/l, respectively. However, these two parameters were not significantly different (p>0.05) between site B (rice field with
chemical fertilizer only) and site C (rice field with chemical fertilizer and herbicide). Levels of Alkalinity, Hardness, Sodium and
Conductivity were highest in site B and least in Site C, with values ranging from 31.00±15.56 to 132.00±19.79 mg/l, 32.00±14.14 to
81.00±41.01 mg/l, 38.15±2.75 to 51.70±1.41 mg/l and 194.00±43.84 to 508.50±44.5 µs/cm, respectively. While the concentration of
Potassium was significantly (p<0.05) lowest in site A (10.40±0.14 mg/l), the concentration of Chloride was significantly lowest in
site C (23.41±15.03 mg/l) and highest in site A (31.45±4.03 mg/l). Significant positive and negative correlations between some of the
parameters were also recorded. These results suggest differential suitability of rice field physicochemical condition for mosquito
breeding in Minna and, thus, should provide baseline guide for mosquito vector control in relation to sustainable rice farming in the
Rice fields; Agricultural chemical inputs; Mosquito larval habitat
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with a population of over 130 million people. Its domestic
economy is dominated by agriculture, which accounts for about 40% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and
two-third of the labour force (Akande, 2000). Generally, cereal crops including sorghum, maize, millet, rice and
wheat, etc. are considered staple and of prime importance in ensuring food security and major source of income
for households in Nigeria and of these cereals crops, rice is considered the most acceptable, resulting in about 10%
increase in annual production, dictated by consumer preference. The Nigerian Government spends as much as
$300 million on rice importation annually (Akande, 2000).
Rice production and consumption in Nigeria cut across cultural, religious, ethinic or geographical boundaries. It is
available in Five Star Hotels in the big cities and towns as well as in the ‘most local’ of eating places the remotest
villages throughout the country. It is highly priced and widely accepted for festivities (Samson and Kadiri, 2007).
Niger state is one of the major rice producing states in Nigeria (Saidu, 2008). The state has the highest average
yield (on average 3 tons (t) of paddy) from a relatively limited area (on average less than two half) (Saidu, 2008).
Though, the use of agro-chemicals such as herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers, especially in rice farming is
known to increase yield per unit area and time (Renato et al., 2011), such activities have widely resulted in the
pollution of aquatic ecosystem, with particular negative effects on water quality. Moreby and Southway (1999),
1,2,3,4,5 7,8,9,10-11,12,13,14,15,16
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